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How much do we know about our eyes? By understanding how all the parts of our eyes work to offer clear vision to us, we will be able to appreciate more of them in every detail and take good care of them to serve us as long as we live. Our bodies change as we get older. So too, do our eyes.

The 7 key components of our eyes are the tears, eyelids, eyelashes, cornea, pupil, lens, retina and optic nerve.

Tears
– the first line of defence which serve to lubricate our eyes and keep them moist and nourished; they also have a corrective lens function.

Eyelids
– protect our eyes from dirt, dust and harsh light.

Eyelashes
– serve as a protective net for our eyes.

Pupil
– helps to control the amount of light that enters our eyes.

Cornea
– a refractive zone that guides light to reach the retina.

Lens
– also a refractive zone but it guides light into the retina.

Retina and Optic Nerve
– a bunch of intricate wiring that carries vision signals between your brain and eyes.

We are able to see an object clearly when light rays are focused on the retina. When light rays focus before or after the retina, blurred vision occurs. The light rays are focused on to the retina when the eyes are looking at distant objects. For a near vision, the focus of the lens is adjusted by the surrounding ciliary muscle.

In order for us to see images, something will have to happen first. There must be an exchange of information between our retina and our brain. The retina changes light into electrical energy and processes this into coded impulses to be transmitted to the brain. So, an image passing through the eye lens is transmitted from the retina to the brain via the optic nerves. There is a complex mixing of the impulses so that the right side of the brain sees everything on your left and vice versa. Just like the camera, the image appears upside down on the retina, but the brain instantly converts it so that one sees everything the right way up. The eyes move together and send almost identical images to the brain. The brain then joins these images into a single mental picture.